On iOS, there are 4 types of builds and below are the differences between the four:
Simulator ad-hoc builds - these are software simulations of iPhones and Xcode would build directly to the simulator and QA testers/developers can test directly on their MacBook.
Ad hoc builds directly to the device - with your iPhone connected to your MacBook, you can build directly onto the device with ad-hoc provisioning - this would be considered a dev build. Conversely, if you're using TestFlight or Hockey App and a UDID is requested - this would be a dev build.
Enterprise provisioning onto the device - with your iPhone connected to your MacBook, you can build directly onto the device with Enterprise provisioning - this would be considered a production build. This would apply to other services as well if you have Enterprise provisioning and it's distributed through TestFlight, Hockey app, or Crashlytics.
App store build - these are builds that you're getting directly from the App Store and would be considered a production build.